JOHN EDWARD HODGE
Hodge (1914-1996) was born in Kansas City, Kansas, and earned an M.A. in 1940 from the University of Kansas where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He engaged in postgraduate studies at Bradley University between 1946 and 1960 and in 1971 obtained a diploma from the Federal Executive Institute, Charlottesville, Virginia. He served as a Professor of Chemistry at Western University, Quindaro, Kansas, and in 1941 he began nearly 40 years of service at the USDA Nonhem Regional Research Center in Peoria, IL., retiring in 1980. Hodge gained attention among carbohydrate chemists in 1979 when an article he wrote in 1953 was named a "Citation Classic" by the Science Citation Index. The average article published in a journal in 1973 received 5.7 citations, whereas Hodge's article had been cited over 155 times since 1961. His article studied the chemistry of browning reactions in dehydrated foods, examples of which are the toasting of bread or marshmallows, the carmelization of sugar when heated, or the browning of a cut piece of apple or banana when left exposed to the air.
PERCY LAVON JULIAN
Julian (1899-1975) was born in Montgomery, Alabama, and received his Ph.D. from the University of Vienna, Austria, in 1931. During the 1920s and 1930s, he taught chemistry at Fisk University, West Virginia State College, Howard University, and DePauw University, and received a fellowship to study for three years at Harvard. He was Director of Research, Soya Products Division, Vegetable Oil and Foods Division, and Manager of Fine Chemicals, for the Glidden company from 1936 till 1953, at which time he founded his own companies. He served as Director, Julian Research Institute, and President, Julian Associated, Inc. from 1964 until his death. He had moved to Oak Park, a suburb of Chicago, in 1951, and his home was fire-bombed twice because of his race. However, Julian is best known for producing chemicals in the laboratory previously only available more expensively from nature. His research and over 100 patents often made use of soybean products and led to discoveries in the manufacture of drugs, hormones, vitamins, amino acids, paint, and paper.
JAMES LU VALLE
Lu Valle (1912-1993) was born in San Antonio, Texas, and received his Ph.D. in 1940 from the California Institute of Technology. After teaching at Fisk University as a chemistry instructor, Lu Valle began working for the Kodak Research Laboratory. During World War II, he worked with the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) at the University of Chicago during 1942 and the California Institute of Technology from 1942-1943. Lu Valle returned to Kodak after the war in several capacities, and then in 1959 he became Director of Basic Research for Fairchild Camera and Instrument in Syoset, New York. In 1975 he served as Laboratory Administrator for the Department of Chemistry at Stanford University. His areas of research focused on photochemistry, electron defraction, and magnetic resonance. Dr. Lu Valle died of a heart attack while vacationing in New Zealand.
SAMUEL PROCTOR MASSIE, JR.
Massie (1919- ) was born in Little Rock, Arkansas, and earned his Ph.D. in Chemistry from Iowa University in 1946. Before this he had been Associate Professor of Mathematics and Physics at Arkansas AM&N College (1940-1941) and a Research Associate at Iowa State College from (1943 to 1946). After his Ph.D. he became an Instructor in Chemistry at Fisk University (1946-1947), left to be Professor of Chemistry, later Chairman of the Department, at Langston University (1947-1953), then returned to Fisk as Professor of Chemistry and Chairman of the Department (1953-1960). In addition to being appointed to Program Director for the National Science Foundation, his career in the 1960s and 1970s included professorships in Chemistry at Howard University and the U.S. Naval Academy.